Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California

Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California
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Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California
Interracial marriage is the phrase that is used to refer to a marriage between two persons from different ethnic groups or from different races. A related phrase to interracial marriage is intercultural marriage that refers to a marriage relationship between two persons of different cultural backgrounds. As such, from a close look, intercultural marriage can be used to refer to interracial marriages. A good example of a intercultural marriage is a marriage between an Indian person and whose culture lays emphasis on the importance of family over the importance of individual benefits and a white person for instance in United States whose culture lays emphasis on individual autonomy. Over the past few decades, relationships between persons of different cultural and ethnic groups have become increasingly common within States such California in which, there have been a substantial increase in number of persons engaging in intercultural or interracial marriages.
Historically, the concept of separation of races or purity had been promoted in all states of America – inclusive of California. Laws had been enacted to keep all the races separate. As such, marriages between the different races were prohibited in United States – and especially in individuals who by high merit of marriage would not uphold the limpidness of racial-ethnic groups. According to Davis (1991), the laws were worded in such a way marriages relationships between African Americans and Caucasians was illegal. However, by 1967, the Supreme Court declared all the laws that that prohibited interracial marriages unconstitutional. Despite this declaration or authorization/legalization of interracial marriage relationships by the Supreme Court of United state the number of interracial marriages across the various states still remained low due to the stigma that had been associated with interracial marriage and relationships.
As from 1980s, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages and especially since the start of 21st century. The increase in interracial marriages in United States had been attributed to the changes in legal status concerning interracial marriages and the changing perceptions of Americans concerning individuals engaging in interracial relationships and marriages. Equally, the increase in interracial marriages in most states can be attributed to the declined societal prejudice towards interracial marriages and the decrease in shame experienced by interracial couples and their families. In addition, the changes in census forms have encouraged Americans to identify with all races comprising the population of America (Davis, 1991),
In United States and in California in particular, the growth or increase of interracial marriages and relationships is not uniform across individuals of the various races comprising the population. This simply implies that interracial marriages have been noted to increase in some ethnic and racial groups but not in others. For instance, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages among the Asian Americans and the Native Americans. However, the number of interracial marriages among peoples of black race and other races has remained low. In most case, it has been noted that more black males do engage in interracial marriages than their counterpart female counterparts. The low rate of interracial marriage amongst the black race can be attributed to the continued disapproval of white-black intermixing. As such, interracial marriages with blacks still receive objection and negative feedbacks from the family member of the other couple and especially the white couple family members (Davis, 1991),
Interracial couples face numerous challenges or hardships. The hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples are similar in almost all the states in America. The major hardships experienced by interracial couples are as a result of family oppositions. As such, there is a possibility of these couples having high levels of conflict. The likely explanation for the high conflict in interracial couples is that such couples may lack the necessary social support from their family members. Equally, the high conflict level in interracial couples can be attributed to cultural differences. For the purpose of this paper, I will address hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples due to lack of social support from family members and cultural differences.
Family oppositions to interracial marriages from a wider perspective can be argued as the major problem facing interracial couples in the state of California. Family and colleagues affect the success of any marriage relationship through failing to provide the much needed social support. For a marriage to be successful, couples need to receive complementing statements from their family members. For instance, complementing statement such as they are a perfect match for each other and that they have the ability of going through any difficulty together and be successful partners and subsequently parents. However, in most interracial marriages the family member are against the marriage and hence such complementing statement may not be available. As such, the family members and to some extend the friends are of negative impact to interracial couples. For instance, the family members and friends have been known to facilitate dissatisfaction between the two partners. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) argued that outside support is a crucial component of a healthy and long lasting marital success. However, most interracial couples don’t receive outside support from their family members. Conversely, it can be argued that one of the hardships experienced by interracial couples is unsupportive family members. The opposition from the family members then damages the couple relationship and hence increasing the likelihood of divorce.
The lack of developing protocols and social norms translates to a lack of support for interracial couples. The disapproval from family members makes the interracial couples to feel insecure and unwelcome and hence damaging their relationship. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) in their work argued that a lack of family and community support was associated to the high divorce rate among interracial couple. In a study conducted that interviewed black-white couples, it was found that most white partner’s family member opposed the marriage. The concerns highlighted by the white partner’s family members for the marriage disapproval grounds on societal issue. For instance, such societal concerns expressed by the white family includes safety concerns, issues to do with the probable problems the couple’s children will face, and concerns about the financial problems the white partner will face for entering in such a relationship. Generally, the assumption here is that the blacks are inferior to the whites and as well they are not financially good (Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell, 1995).
Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) outlined that some studies conducted in California indicated that the black families had no issues with interracial marriages and accepted or supported it. Generally, there is less opposition to interracial marriage from the black families. Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) continue to outline that mothers are of great influence and their opinion in respect to the couple’s relationship matters most. Equally, the studies indicated that fathers from the white family side played a significant role in opposing the marriage relationship. As such, fathers were found to strongly oppose interracial marriages than mothers. The studies also indicated that the opinion of the white family mattered most. As such, there were few black families member who opposed the marriage relationship. Studies have also indicated that black families have minimal or less stringent rules as to who should count as a family member. This makes it easy to accept someone from a different race and incorporate him or her as a family member.
Generally, the complications experienced by interracial couple in California are because of the depressing societal altitudes concerning interracial relationships. For instance, Caucasian-black unions are least to occur basing on the longstanding negative beliefs concerning these relationships and marriages. Generally, the researchers conducted concerning why such marriage relationships are rare indicate that Caucasians’ families have a tendency of disapproving marriage relationships between them and blacks. However, the black have a tendency of approving their marriage relationships with the Caucasians. As such, the Caucasians have a feeling that the blacks are inferior and that they should not intermix by allowing their family members to intermarry with the blacks. Equally, another study indicated that those couples among the Caucasians who marry a black do so because of their rebelliousness and self-hate. This perception questions whether or not interracial couples are reciprocate love basing on the rejection received from the family members. Equally, arguing from the point that the dominant culture has the tendency of disdaining Caucasian-black unions, it is equally hard to imagine that such married partners are capable of maintaining a healthy marital relationship (Bryant and Conger, 1999).
Asian Americans interracial relationships have also proved to be rocky. In California, Asian Americans have the highest interracial relationship than any other ethnic or racial group. It is important to note that despite this increase in interracial marriages amongst the Asian Americans and other races comprising the population of America, initially, interracial marriages between the Caucasians and the Asian Americans was prohibited in United State. For instance, in the year 1910, the California State comprehensively extended the 1850 Marriage Regulation Act to include Mongolians – that is the Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese. Subsequently in 1933, the California state further extended the same marriage regulation to marriage relationships or unions with the Malays – that is marriage relationship with the Filipinos. However, in 1948 in a case (Perez v. Sharp 1948) the discriminating Marriage Regulation was overturned by the judicial system of California. Equally, such, anti-miscegenation laws were later overturned by the U.S Supreme Court in 1967 in their ruling in (Loving V. Virginia). Despite the fact that the rulings of these two cases legalized interracial marriages, the unconstructive societal viewpoints on interracial relationships and especially in respect to Caucasian black relationship has not really improved the situation (Bok-Lim Kim, 1998).
According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages between the United States military men and Asian women – especially, among Vietnams, Japanese, Philippines, and South Koreans. According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), the increase of these interracial marriages among the military men can be attributed to the low socioeconomic standing of these women living within proximity to the military bases. Equally, the increase of theses interracial marriages between the military men and the Asian women is attributed to the diminished self esteem among these women as a result of their low social economic status. Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continues to outline that these interracial couples were found to display unconcerned optimism and courage despite the hardships they faced as a result of their cultural and language differences and as well the lack of social support from their communities and families. Additionally, Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continued to highlight that the Asian women in question continued to carry the cultural norms burden, which in most cases attracts a severe penalty for opting to marry outside their race and ethnic group. It is important to note that despite the fact there has been a notable improvement in Asian out marriages acceptance over the decades by their families and communities, the major hindrances or problems to the success of these marriage relationships is because of their differing cultural background.
Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.
The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.
Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.
From a general perspective, most of the hardships and other problems experienced in interracial relationships or unions are direct or unique results of interracial experience. Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.
The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.
Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.

References
Bryant, C.M., & Conger, R.D. (1999). Marital Success and Domains of Social Support in Long- Term Relationship: Does the Influence of Network Members ever End? Journal of Marriage and the family, 61, 437-450.
Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is Black? One Nation’s Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania state university press.
Fujino, D. C. (1997). “The Rates, Patterns and Reasons For Forming Heterosexual Interracial Dating Relationships Among Asian Americans.” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 14:809–28.
Kim, K. (1998). “Marriages of Asian Women and American Military Men: The Impact of Gender and Culture.” In Re-visioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice, ed. m. mcgoldrick. New York: Guilford press.
Rosenblatt, P.C., Karis, T.A., & Powell, R.D. (1995). Multiracial Couples: Black and White Voices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.